Tavuklarda davranım özellikleri ve sosyal yapı

Engin Yenice

Abstract


Kümes hayvanlarının evcilleştirilmesi, insanlık için önemli gelişmelerden biridir ve insanlar için protein ihtiyacı sağlamada büyük etkisi olmuştur. Evcilleştirme; anatomi, davranış ve fizyolojinin spesifik ihtiyaçlara göre modifiye edildiği süreklilik arz eden genetik bir süreçtir. Kümes hayvanlarının fiziksel ve sosyolojik ortamdaki değişimlere karşı geliştirdiği karmaşık davranışsal tepkiler vardır. Kümes hayvanlarının yaşamında yapılan değişikliklere nasıl uyum sağladığını anlayabilmek için öncelikle kısa ve uzun vadeli cevapların davranışsal aralığına ve genetik varyasyonun bilinmesine ihtiyaç vardır. İlk evcilleştirilmesinden beri, tavuklar eti ve yumurtası için yetiştirilmiştir ve son yıllarda tavukların davranışı ve refahı konusunda çok sayıda çalışma yapılmıştır. Tavukçulukta üretim uygulamalarının tavuklar üzerine etkisinin belirlenmesine ihtiyaç vardır. Bu makalede tavuklarda folluk seçimi, grup içi ilişkiler ve beslenme gibi bazı davranım özellikleri ele alınmıştır. Tavuklarda korku ve ıstırap verimi olumsuz yönde etkileyen önemli faktörlerdir. Üreticiler tarafından bazı davranışların bilinmesi, daha sağlıklı tavukların yetiştirilmesini sonuçta daha fazla ve kaliteli üretim yapılmasını sağlamaktadır. Günümüzde bir bilim dalı haline gelen davranım, yumurta tavuklarının önemli davranış özelliklerinin bilinmesi, onların bakımları ile ilgili uygulamalarda üreticilere çok büyük kolaylıklar sağlamaktadır. Yetiştiricilik açısından tavukların önemli bir davranım özelliği; sürü içerisinde zamanla birçok koloninin oluşması ve bu kolonilerin kendi içlerinde hiyerarşik bir yapının oluşturulmasıdır.

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